Cholesterol is a substance similar to fat. It has many functions in the body, and can be used as a component of the cell wall or as a substance that initiates the production of various hormones. In addition, it is also involved in the formation of bile acids that stimulate digestion.
In industrialized countries in Europe, many people have blood cholesterol levels higher than 4 mmol/L. This is caused by modern lifestyles, unbalanced food intake, insufficient physical activity, and overweight. Therefore, cardiovascular diseases often appear in industrialized countries.
* Good and good cholesterol.
Cholesterol is insoluble in the blood, which is why in order to be transported in the blood vessels, they must be bound to proteins. This leads to fat-protein complexes called lipoproteins. There are different types of lipoproteins that affect the risk of atherosclerosis in different ways.
Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is one of the main lipoproteins. They promote the development of atherosclerosis, which is why they are also called “bad” cholesterol. Low-density lipoprotein mainly contains cholesterol that our body cells use to make cell walls and hormones. Low-density lipoprotein is broken down in liver cells. If the entry of low-density lipoprotein into the liver is disturbed, the level of low-density lipoprotein in the blood will increase. Excessive undamaged low-density lipoprotein cholesterol spreads in the arterial wall (blood vessel), which is a sign of atherosclerosis. Therefore, too high LDL cholesterol is harmful to the heart and blood vessels.
High-density lipoproteins “high-density lipoproteins” (HDL) have anti-atherosclerotic properties, so they are also called “good” cholesterol. In fact, high-density lipoprotein can restore excess cholesterol in the body, especially cholesterol in the arterial wall, and transport it to the liver, where it is broken down and eliminated along with bile. Therefore, low levels of HDL cholesterol are harmful to the heart and blood vessels.
* High cholesterol is a friendly carrier.
Atherosclerosis can cause arteries to narrow or even block, which can lead to heart attacks or strokes. This process, commonly referred to as “arterial calcification”, begins with the deposition of LDL cholesterol (fatty streaks) inside the arteries. Macrophages fill themselves with cholesterol, swell and look like they are filled with foam (foam cells), and the smooth muscle and fibrous connective tissue cells surrounding these fats form a kind of “patch” buffer (atherosclerosis) protruding, The thickening time narrows the inside of the blood vessel wall and obstructs blood flow. One of the layers is dangerous to rupture.
A blood clot (thrombus) quickly forms and blocks the artery. If this happens in the coronary arteries that lead to the heart muscle, then the blood supply to the heart muscle is insufficient in the corresponding area. If blood clots form in the arteries supplying the brain, the disease is caused by a stroke because part of the brain suddenly loses blood supply. The leg is blocked and the limb is at risk of gangrene. This situation is especially serious if the bad LDL cholesterol level is too high and the HDL cholesterol is too low.
Hyperlipidemia is not the only risk factor for the development of atherosclerosis. Studies have found that there are a series of other factors, such as: smoking, lack of exercise, diabetes, stress, overweight, etc. The risk of atherosclerosis increases with the number of risk factors present. We can only reduce the risk of disease by limiting the impact of risk factors as much as possible, or eliminating them better.
* Dangerous complications of atherosclerosis.
Atherosclerosis and its clinical complications, such as arterial thrombosis, ischemia and myocardial infarction, and ischemia of the brain and other organs, continue to account for the majority of morbidity and mortality. Adult mortality in industrialized countries. Some complications:
-High blood pressure.
Ischemia (Due to atherosclerotic plaques that cause difficulty in arterial blood circulation and reduced tissue oxygenation): This ischemic condition affects tissues in any part of the body, including arteries, including coronary arteries (which supply the heart and cause angina)) And the risk of infarction) or the brain (causing thrombotic stroke). In the case of ischemia, the patient will have different symptoms, especially during or after exercise, because the body’s oxygen demand increases but it cannot be satisfied due to plaque obstructing circulation. Arterial blood. These symptoms depend on whether they affect the heart (other symptoms such as shortness of breath, chest pain, and heart attack).
-Pain in the fixed area.
-Hypoxia: Hypoxia can cause paleness, fatigue, and shortness of breath.
-Arterial embolism: A blood clot forms in an artery and blood no longer circulates.
Tissue necrosis: due to hypoxia, the tissue is affected by too many acresch plaque die. It can prevent an organ, such as the heart, from working properly.
-The risk of cardiovascular accidents: Myocardial rupture (IDM) and cerebrovascular accidents are of two types: due to ruptured aneurysms, atherosclerosis will cause hemorrhagic stroke, which is often overlooked and bleeding. Deadly blood. When the plaque completely blocks the artery, a thrombotic stroke occurs.
If the patient has other cardiovascular risk factors, these complications are more likely to occur. Generally speaking, to prevent us, we must pay attention to a healthy lifestyle: do not smoke, do not use stimulants such as alcohol and beer, eat more fruits and vegetables, eat less meat and fat, engage in moderate physical activity, relax and avoid stress , Regularly monitor blood cholesterol for timely treatment.